These days, planning for retirement is a concern for most Americans. In the past, many Americans relied on Social Security and company pensions to fund their retirement. Today, Social Security does not pay enough for some people to be comfortable in their retirement, and most companies have eliminated pensions (if they had them to begin with). Therefore, making 401(k) and IRA contributions are critical to people’s retirement to ensure that they have enough money once they stop working.
The average American contributes $1,325 to retirement accounts per year, according to Esri, world’s leader in geographic information systems (GIS). What types of Americans are most likely to contribute? Who contributes to 401(k) accounts? What about IRA accounts? Where do these Americans live?
401(k) retirement accounts allow Americans to contribute to their retirement directly from their regular paychecks. The contributions are pre-tax and are often matched by employers to encourage savings. Not everyone contributes though. Some either do not feel they have the funds to do so or they do not see the value.
Esri provides Market Potential data that includes a Market Potential Index (MPI). The index measures the probability that adults or households in a specific area will exhibit certain consumer behaviors compared to the U.S. average. The index is tabulated to represent a value of 100 as the overall demand for the U.S.
The areas with the highest likelihood of residents that contribute to a 401(k) are in states on the Eastern Seaboard, in the Midwest and along the California coast.
ZIP codes of residents with the highest likelihood of having a 401(k) account include 19373 (Thornton, Pa.), 08535 (Millstone, N.J.), 48374 (Novi, Mich.) and 99516 (Anchorage, Alaska). Each of these ZIP codes has a market potential index of 173, meaning a resident in these ZIP codes is 1.73 times more likely or more than the average American to have a 401(k) account.
What type of person is most likely to have a 401(k) account? Esri has developed the Tapestry Segmentation system that classifies U.S. residential neighborhoods into 65 unique market segments based on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.
The Tapestry segments with the highest likelihood of having a 401(k) account are Boomburbs, Exurbanites, Sophisticated Squires and Suburban Splendor. Residents in neighborhoods dominated by these tapestry segments are at least 1.5 times more likely than the average American to have a 401(k) account.
Residents of these tapestry neighborhoods are all very wealthy. Boomburbs communities are home to busy, affluent families with young children who live an upscale lifestyle. Open areas define the Exurbanites affluent neighborhoods of empty nesters and married couples with children. Sophisticated Squires are educated, married couple families hold good-paying jobs and are willing to commute longer distances to maintain a semi-rural lifestyle. Suburban Splendor neighborhoods mostly include two‐income, married‐couple families with or without children. They are well-educated and have good jobs.
The tapestry segments with the least likelihood of having a 401(k) account are City Dimensions, The Elders, Home Town, Industrious Urban Fringe, Las Casas, Metro City Edge, Modest Income Homes, NeWest Residents and Rural Bypasses. Residents in these neighborhoods have an index of 50 or less meaning they are half as likely as the average American to have a 401(k) account.
Low income is the commonality among these segments. Differences occur in age, race/ethnicity and location.
Contributing to an Individual Retirement Account (IRA) is another way that Americans can save for retirement. The U.S. government encourages people to contribute to an IRA by allowing them to deduct (depending on their income level) the contribution amount from their taxes. Not all Americans take advantage of this. Who does? Who doesn’t? Where do they live?
Areas with where people are most likely to contribute to an IRA are in the Midwest and along the Eastern Seaboard. The ZIP codes with some of the highest likelihood of people contributing an IRA are 02030 (Dover, Mass.), 94028 (Portola Valley, Calif.) and 38139 (Germantown, Tenn.). Each of these ZIP codes have an index of 199 meaning residents are 1.99 times more likely or more than the average American to contribute to an IRA.
Residents of neighborhoods with dominant tapestry segments most likely to contribute to an IRA are Suburban Splendor and Top Rung. These neighborhoods have an index of at least 200 meaning residents are at least two times more likely than the average American to contribute to an IRA. Residents in neighborhoods dominated by the Boomburbs, Connoisseurs, Exurbanites, Metropolitans, Military Proximity, Prairie Living, Prosperous Empty Nesters, Silver and Gold, Urban Chic and Wealthy Seaboard Suburbs segments have an index of 150 or higher. Except for Military Proximity and Prairie Living, all of these segments are affluent. Residents of Military Proximity neighborhoods are either on active duty or civilian employees of the military. Prairie Living neighborhoods are located primarily across America’s breadbasket; residents are employed in agriculture.
Top Rung is tapestry’s wealthiest consumer segment. It represents less than 1% of all U.S. households. In their peak earning years, these highly-educated residents are married couples with and without children. Suburban Splendor neighborhoods mostly include two‐income, married‐couple families with or without children. They are well-educated and have good jobs.
Tapestry segments with the least likelihood of contributing to an IRA are City Dimensions, City Strivers, High Rise Renters, Home Town, Inner City Tenants, Industrious Urban Fringe, International Marketplace, Las Casas, NeWest Residents, Southwestern Families, Urban Melting Pot and Urban Villages. Residents in these neighborhoods have an index of 50 or less meaning they are half as likely as the average American to contribute to an IRA. Residents of these neighborhoods are low income; differences among them are age, race/ethnicity and location.
Retirement contribution amount
The amount people contribute to their retirement accounts vary tremendously. Obviously it is important for people to contribute as much as they can but that varies with income level and personal situation. Who contributes the most? Who contributes the least? Where do they live?
People living along the Eastern Seaboard and the coast of California contribute the most to the retirement accounts. Residents in ZIP codes 22066 (Great Falls, Va.), 10514 (Chappaqua, N.Y.) and 60043 (Kenilworth, Ill.) have some of the highest contributors to retirement accounts. Residents of these ZIP codes contribute an average of $5,000 or more per year to retirement accounts. Areas of Arizona, New Mexico and Kentucky have some of the lowest contribution rates.
Residents of neighborhoods dominated by tapestry segment Top Rung contribute the most. These residents contribute $2,500 or more annually to their retirement accounts. Residents of Boomburbs, Connoissuers, Exurbanites, Suburban Splendor, Wealthy Seabord Suburbs and Urban Chic also contribute a significant amount. Residents in most of these neighborhoods, on average, contribute $2,000 or more annually to retirement accounts.
Residents of City Commons and Social Security Set neighborhoods are among the lowest contributors to retirement accounts. Most residents, on average, contribute $500 or less annually. Many residents of Social Security Set are already retired, so they probably would not contribute. Residents of this segment live alone in rented apartments in low‐rent, high‐rise buildings. City Commons neighborhoods are primarily in large Southern and Midwestern metropolitan areas. Primarily in cities of large Southern and Midwestern metropolitan areas, residents of these neighborhoods are young, single or single parents, and most likely, unemployed, or work part‐time.
Why does this matter?
Americans all dream of comfortable retirement; however, not all can do it. Many want to ensure that once residents get to retirement age, they can enjoy it — travel, see family, pay for medical care and participate in hobbies. Not everyone is planning (or even able to plan) for their retirement. It is important for the government, nonprofit organizations,and companies to understand how much people are saving for retirement, what types of retirement savings programs are being utilized and who uses them. This information can help target education and other efforts to inform people about the best way to plan. Knowing where they live is a big part of this as that information can be used to develop marketing and set up programs for people who are not as prepared for retirement.
Pam Allison is a digital media, marketing strategist and location intelligence consultant. You can visit her blog at www.pamallison.com.